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Voir la version complète : Importance of Verifying Hadith by Shaykh Asrar Rashid /// Types of Fabricated Hadith & Advice About Sharing Unverified Narrations by Ustadh Abdus Shakur Brooks



talib abdALLAH
31/03/2017, 16h11
اَلحَمدُلِلهِ رَبِ العَلَمِينَ ؕ وَالصَّلَوةُ وَ السَّلَامُ عَلَى سَيِـّـدِ المُرسَلِين
اَمَّا بَعدُ فَاَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيطَنِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمَنِ الرَّحِيم


السلام عليكم ورحمة الله تعالى وبركاته

Asalamu 3alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh







*






Importance of Verifying Hadith


Shaykh Asrar Rashid




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9HuCzvCMZM8






Types of Fabricated Hadith

&

Advice About Sharing Unverified Narrations


by Ustadh Abdus Shakur Brooks






ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ







Types of Fabricated Hadith


A fabricated Hadith (mawdū’) generally refers to a narration falsely attributed to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. After intensive scholastic research, Hadith scholars generally classified the various types and causes of Hadith fabrication accordingly:


1. Political Sectarianism


This type of fabrication, chronologically, was the first type to appear. It arised as a result of political feud after the death of Uthmān (may Allah be please with him). Amongst the later generation, who were not raised in the company of the Prophet ﷺ, there were those whose sectarianism misleadingly drove them to fabricate Hadith in favour of those who they supported politically. Amongst the extreme Shia (Al-Rāfidah) there were those who fabricated Hadith regarding the virtues of Ali ibn Abi Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him). In response, those who opposed them began to fabricate Hadith regarding the virtues of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). Ibn Al-Jawzi states in his book Al-Mawdū’āt (Book of Fabricated Hadith):


The Chapter Concerning The Virtues of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq: People, who held no integrity, had gone to extremes –in spite of their claim that they strictly adhere to the Sunnah– by fabricating Hadith regarding the virtue of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him). Amongst them were those whose objective was to oppose the extreme Shia (Al-Rāfidah) who fabricated Hadith regarding [the virtues] of Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). Both of these factions were wrong. These two nobles (Abu Bakr and Ali) are well-off with their virtues that have come via authentic Hadith, free from any need of fabrications.

Ibn Al-Jawzi also states:

The Chapter Concerning The Virtues of Ali: The virtues of Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) that have come through authentic Hadith are many. However, the extreme Shia (Al-Rafidah) were not content with them thus, they fabricated what they did about him…


2. Corrupting the practice and understanding of Islam (religiously and socially)


Impostors, in their plot against Islam, used to fabricate Hadith relating to belief and practice in order to pervert and corrupt Islam. Moreover, Hadith of inane nature were also fabricated as an attempt to disparage Prophetic Speech. If it could be assumed that speech of such nature be the words of the Prophet ﷺ, then perhaps people would think no value of his message and thus discredit him and disregard Islam.


An example of fabricated Hadith regarding belief:

“I saw my Lord at Mina, on a day of battle, riding a brownish horse. He was dressed in a jacket (jubbah) and positioned in front of the people.”


An example of fabricated Hadith regarding practice and belief: “If you held a better opinion of stones, it would benefit you.”


An example of fabricated Hadith regarding inane speech: “Do not curse the rooster because he is my friend. If mankind knew the benefit of its crow, they would buy its feathers and meat with gold!”


3. Nationalism, tribalism etc.


Hadith were fabricated to substantiate the virtue of Arabs over other nations. Likewise, on the contrary, Hadith were fabricated to show virtue of other nations over Arabs. An example of this is the fabricated Hadith that states, “Verily when Allah gets angry, He sends down revelation in Arabic and when He is pleased, He sends revelation in Farsi.”


4. Storytelling and lectures (for the purpose of encouragement and discouragement)


This type of fabrication came about through storytelling and lectures delivered for the purpose of motivating people to do good deeds and remember the Hereafter. People began to fabricate enchanting Hadith so wondrous that listeners, out of inspiration, would hasten to act in accordance. Fabricated Hadith such as, ” Whoever says La ilaha illa Allah, Allah creates for every word a bird with a beak of gold and wings of pearls….” were forged with this objective in mind.


5. Sectarianism within different sects or schools of thought


This type of fabrication occurred as a result of dogmatic adherents of a particular sect or school of thought who desired to discredit the views of all and any who opposed them. For example, some fabricated the Hadith, “Whoever says that the Quran is created is a kāfir” and also, “Whoever raises his hands (while in prayer) after performing the rukū’, his prayer is invalid.”


6. Seeking reward


This type of fabrication occurred as a result of
some ignorant people who actually believed that fabricating Hadith upon the Prophet ﷺ was virtuous because it entailed attributing praise and virtue to the Prophet ﷺ (according to them).


When the rigorously authentic Hadith, “Whoever lies about me intentionally, then let him make his abode in The Fire 1” was told to them, in order to warn them of their grievous transgression of Hadith forgery, they would respond saying, “We don’t lie against the Prophet ﷺ . We lie for the sake of the Prophet ﷺ .” That was the degree of their heedless ignorance. Shaykh Abdul Fattah Abu Guddah, may Allah have mercy on him, states:


These kind of fabricators are the most dangerous. Because of their outward expression of piety, ascetics and worship, what they say (regarding statements of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ ) is taken with utter acceptance by the common folk. They never suspect that they would lie or that such a thing could even occur from them.


7. Seeking the favour of Sultans and worldly benefit


People, in search for status and worldly gain, would fabricate Hadith to please the Sultan. If they fabricated Hadith in his favour, then perhaps they might achieve some wealth or status. The known fabricator, Giyāth bin Ibrahim, had once entered upon the Khalifah Al-Mahdī Al-Abbāsi, who use to love the entertainment of birds. Al- Mahdi had requested Giyāth to cite some Hadith of the Prophet ﷺ and so he cited the authentic Hadith which Abu Hurairah reported, “There is no competing except in camels (khuff), archery (nasl) or horses (hāfir). 2” Thereafter, in addition, he fabricated “or birds (janāh)” in order to please the Khalifah.


However, this did not work in his favour because Al-Mahdi was a man of knowledge and piety. Al-Mahdi rebuked this fabrication saying, “I bear witness that your neck is the neck of a liar upon the Messenger of Allah ﷺ ! The Messenger of Allah ﷺ did not say “o birds” however, this man wanted to gain closeness to me.”


8. Tampering with texts


This type of fabrication was the result of secretly added fabrications to a Hadith Scholar’s collection without him knowing. Thereafter, at the time of reporting Hadith from his collection, he would report the fabrications unaware that they were forged into his copy. Ibn Hibbān, may Allah have mercy on him, said about the narrator Qais :

“I have investigated and followed up the Hadith of Qais [bin Al-Rabī’] and found him trustworthy and reliable when he was a young man. however, after he aged, his memory became weak and he was
unfortunate to have a mischievous son who used to [secretly] add Hadith to his collection. Thus, his reports began to include reprehensible narrations (manākīr).
[B]

9. Falsely ascribing forged Hadith to the famous Imams of Knowledge


Ibn Hibbān said about a fabricator by the name of Abbān bin Ja’far, “He falsely attributed more than three hundred fabrications of Hadith to Abu Hanifah.” Al-Dāraqutnī, may Allah have mercy on him, said about a fabricator by the name of Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Ja’far Al-Qazwīnī, “He is a great liar! He authored a booked called Sunnan Al-Shāfi’ī which consists of about two hundred Hadith which Imam Shāfi’ī never even reported.” 3


In spite of numerous attempts to fabricate Hadith, Allah gifted this Ummah with men of scholastic mastery in the field of Hadith Investigation (Sabr Al-Hadith) who sifted out not only the fabricated Hadith alone but also the fabricator himself. Until this day, after centuries of scholarship, we still have those same encyclopedic canons of our classical scholars. These works document a detailed record of fabricated Hadith including the names of those fabricators, al-hamdulillah. These works are still studied, researched and relied upon until today by those engaged in the sciences of Hadith.


– *Advice About Sharing Unverified Narrations


It is obligatory to verify the authenticity of any Hadith attributed to the Prophet ﷺ before believing in it, acting upon it or sharing it with others. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ has mentioned a serious warning to those who attribute falsitiesto him saying, “Whoever lies about me intentionally, then let him make his abode in The Fire. 4”. Fabricated Hadith, as well as the misuse and mistranslation of authentic Hadith, have become widespread and popular on social-media networks. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ has said, “It is sufficient for a person to be considered a liar that he reports everything he hears. 5”


Therefore, unless a person trusts the integrity, knowledge or scholarship of a person sharing Hadith, whether it be on social media or elsewhere, he must verify it before sharing it with others. The general Quranic instruction of verification is to {Ask the People of Reminder [i.e. People of Knowledge/Scholars] if you don’t know} 6. In this regard, one should ask a learned scholar in the field of Hadith and its sciences.


In sha Allah, this article serves as a glimpse into the vast dicussion of Hadith fabrication. It serves to benefit that the reader remember these nine types as a prompting signal in discerning a fabrication. Although, alone, a common person is not able to pinpoint a fabrication, at the slightest, he will be cued to seek verification.


Allah knows best.


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1. Sahih Bukhārī 110, Sahih Muslim 3005

2. Abu Dawud 2574, Al-Tirmidhi 1700, Al-Nasai 2/226 , Ibn Majah 2878

3. These nine types of Hadith fabrication are excerpted from Shaykh Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah’s book “Lamahāt min Tārīkh Al-Sunnah wa ‘Ilm Al-Hadith”. (See Pages 91-137)

4. Sahih Bukhārī 110, Sahih Muslim 3005

5. Sahih Muslim (in his Muqqadimah), Abū Dawūd, 4492

6. Surah Al-Nahl v.43
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The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: [I]“Convey from me, even if only one verse!”