Voir la version complète : Comparative Religions in Islamic Thought (Dar al Ifta Egypt)

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talib abdALLAH
04/07/2017, 17h18
The methods of argumentation in discussing religions and sects, for Ibn Hazm, are :

1. An affirmative interrogation. This is to interrogate with respect to premises and obvious matters in accordance with a method that no one may refuse, because of its being based on logic.

2. Agreeing with an opponent on invalid premises, so that he may be pointed out its unacceptable or impossible conclusions.

3. Asking the opponent to correct his claim or establish his falsehood. This is like God’s refutation of the Jews and Christians that the fire would not afflict them except for a limited amount of time: And they say: The Fire (of punishment) will not touch us save for a certain number of days. Say: Have ye received a covenant from Allah - truly Allah will not break His covenant - or tell ye concerning Allah that which ye know not ? (Quran 2:80)

4. Stating what is entailed by an opponent’s claim to refute him. For example, the discussion that the Torah says that Abraham married his sister. It is mentioned that this refers to a relation, and not a blood sister; or to a sister in religion as the hadith in Bukhari and Muslim states.

5. Establishing that that which is claimed by the opponent is void of any proof, or that the proof given also proves a contradictory claim – all so as to refute the given claim.
We would be remiss if we did not mention here Abu Al-Fath Muhammad bin ‘Abd Al-Karim bin Abu Bakr Ahmad Al-Shahrastani (479-548 AH), the author of the book Al-Milal wa al-Nihal, considered one of the most famous traditional books in the field of comparative religion, because it summarizes and refers to many fields. It may have been that this book diminished the appreciation of Al-Shahrastani and his intellectual standing, because there is exaggeration and some fabrication in it. We tend to the position of Muhammad Sayyid Kilani, who called it a concise encyclopedia of religions, schools of thought, and sects, and also of philosophical opinions in metaphysics known at the time.

A quick glance at the contents of the book confirms the broad coverage of the book as well as his method of summarizing. For example, when Al-Shahrastani speaks of the Mu’tazila, he mentions more than 12 sub-sects, like the Wasiliyya, Hudhayliyya, Nazzamiyya, etc., indicating his methodological disposition for thoroughness in investigation. At times he mentions obscure sects that hardly anyone knows. This is also how he dealt with the Murji’a, Shi’a, and Khawarij, as well as other religions and philosophical opinions.
In summary, that which is presented by Al-Shahrastani indicates the depth and richness of the Islamic legacy in comparative religion.

talib abdALLAH
04/07/2017, 17h19
The Methodological Basis of Interreligious Dialogue in Islam

The question of interreligious dialogue is one of the most researched and discussed topics today. It is also the most differed upon, even to the extent that it leads to conflict. The source of this difference and conflict is the broadness of interreligious dialogue in terms of its conception, treatment, and aims.
Interreligious dialogue might focus on religious problems on which the various religious differ, like the question of what is divine, prophecy, the divine books, secularism, the relation of religion to politics, daily life, and freedom of expression and belief.

Dialogue might also concern problems that are agreed upon and that are to be jointly refuted, like fighting terrorism of all kinds, killing innocent peaceful civilians, destroying public buildings, and military occupation. It also includes preventing killing in all forms, like euthanasia and abortion and belittling religion, prophets, and sacred beliefs.
Interreligious dialogue can also be about current issues, for example, the convening of a conference for religions to discuss the questions of insulting depictions of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
As for the participants in the dialogue, they may be religious personalities that represent a religion or they may be academics or activists, or a mix of the various kinds of people.

The dialogue may involve only two of the revealed religions, like Islam and Christianity or three, or more by including other religions.

Interreligious dialogue might only concern religions from a particular continent or place or it can be international.

The dispassionate observer of interreligious dialogue will find that it can be useful in this distressing age. Indeed, it is so important and needed that it might be considered an obligation.

talib abdALLAH
04/07/2017, 17h21
Dialogue in the Qur’an and Sunna

The Qur’an relies on dialogue in presenting its truths, because it is the best way of persuading and the easiest path to arriving at what is correct. It is using the mind, and sharpening one’s thought and imagination and it transforms bare thought into a live and clear form that leads to persuasion and influence.

The Qur’an in general is based on dialogue, the following being a few examples of it:

1. What took place between God and His angels, concerning the creation of Adam and between God and Satan in the Chapter Al Baqara.

2. What took place between God and His prophets, including Nuh, Ibrahim, Moses, Jesus, upon them be peace, in Al Baqara, Al Ma’ida, Al A’raf, and Hud.

3. The dialogue between the prophets and their people, in the chapters Yunus, Hud, Ibrahim, and Nuh.

4. The dialogue between the prophets and their children, like of Ibrahim and Nuh, upon them be peace in chapters Hud and Maryam.

5. The dialogue between the two sons of Adam in Al Ma’ida.

6. The dialogue in the story of the owner of the two gardens in chapter al-Kahf.

7. The dialogue of story of Moses with Pharoah and of Qarun with his people in chapter al-Qasas.

8. The dialogue of Moses with the righteous believer in al-Kahf.

9. The dialogue in the story of Sulayman and Bilqis in al-Naml.

10. The dialogue in the story of Yusuf, which indeed is nearly all a dialogue between him and his brothers, between him and the lord’s lady and the women, and between him and the prisoners.

11. The dialogue between the leaders and followers in the hereafter in al-Baqara, Saba, Ghafir, and between the people of Paradise and Hell in al-A’raf.

The examples are plentiful in the Qur’an. They in general present an invitation to Islam and call to debate and engagement with the mind, by evoking emotions and setting out proofs so that one is persuaded and convinced.

Dialogue in the Qur’an is sometimes presented in a brief or summary fashion and sometimes in detail. Sometimes the Qur’an suffices with an indication and sometimes it points to a part of the debate leaving the rest to be worked out by the audience. Sometimes it focuses on the conclusions and lessons. All this is a part of the greatness of the Qur’an in terms of the range of its style as required by the context.

Dialogue in the Sunna

The call to Islam established by the Prophet (peace be upon him) was based on dialogue from the first word that was pronounced in Mecca on the Mount of al-Safa, when the following verse was revealed: “Proclaim what you have been commanded with and turn away from the polytheists”.

The examples of dialogue that are found in the Sunna include:

1. The dialogues that the Prophet (peace be upon him) with the polytheists of Quraysh when the Quraysh sent Utbah ibn Rabi’a to negotiate with the Prophet (peace be upon him) and to present him with various choices to leave his call to Islam. The Prophet (peace be upon him) reject Utbah’s offer and the first verses of Fussilat were revealed on this occasion.

2. The Prophet’s dialogue with his uncle, Abu Talib.

3. His dialogue with the people of Yathrib in the first and second pledge of Aqaba.

4. His dialogue with Suhayl ibn Amr who was sent by the Quraysh regarding the Pact of Hudaybiya.

5. His dialogue with the Jews of Madina.

6. His dialogue with the Christians of Najran in his masjid.

7. His dialogue with the hypocrites of Madina.

8. His dialogue with his Companions in teaching them and training them, like the hadith of Jibril on Iman, Islam, and Ihsan, the hadith on who is bankrupt, the hadith on the river in which on purifies oneself daily, his advice to the youth who wanted to do forbidden things, and his discussion with Khawla bint Thalaba regarding her husband at the beginning of al-Mujadala and so on.

talib abdALLAH
04/07/2017, 17h26
The Motives for Dialogue in Islam

If the aim and goal of dialogue differs between Muslims and others, like the People of the Book, then there is no doubt that the motives will also differ. So this raises the question of what are the motives for Muslims in dialogue. The motive include:

1. To communicate the message of Islam

Because the Islam is an invitation to everyone in the world, from all races, colors and groups, Muslims, individually and collectively, should communicate the message of Islam. This is a divine obligation from God for those He chose for this important task. God states, “Let there be amongst you a nation that calls to the good, commanding what is right and forbidding what is wrong. They are the successful.”
Communicating Islam to others requires dialogue and debate, and give and take, and questions and answers. Thus, dialogue is an important means of conveying the message of Islam. Islam is a practical call that is spread by rational persuasion and establishing proofs and demonstrations on the truth of its teachings and its consistency with reason, logic and intuition. Convincing people of the teachings of Islam requires dialogue that is based on wisdom and good-willed discussion. God says, “Call to the path of your Lord with wisdom and good speech, and debate with them with that which is best, your Lord is knows best who goes astray from his path and He knows best who is guided.” God also states, “Say this is my path. Call to it with insight, myself and those who follow me. Glory be to God for I am not a polytheist.”

The Nature of the Final Message

Some reasons that motivate Muslims to engage in dialogue concerns the nature of the final message that Islam advances, by which God had made the Muslim community a witness for humanity. God states, “In this way We have made you a moderate nation so that you may be witnesses for people.”
Then God discusses the necessity of mixing with the world and discussing according to Islamic principles so that the aim of dialogue is fulfilled: “Do not worship other than God and do not associate anything with Him, and do not take some from amongst you as Lords other than God.”

Correcting the Perception of Islam in the World

There are certain misconceptions regarding Islam that some people have adopted erroneously. This requires correcting and clarification according to proper Islamic understanding. It is possible to do this by sending to various places specialized preachers who are fluent in various languages to present Islam from its proper sources in a simple manner by which people can understand and comprehend its message. This can only be done by lectures and conventions that use the language of dialogue in addition to the Muslim population that reside there to correct misconceptions regarding Islam. This is done through their behavior and interaction with non-Muslims.

Decreasing the Sharpness of Conflict and Clash between East and West

Dialogue in the Islamic view is a human necessity because the Muslim does not live alone in this world and independently of the outside world with various religions and beliefs. Modern media has made the world a small village. People see and hear what is going on in the entire world in one moment, so that various cultures and civilization are exposed to one another. This leads to dialogue between these various cultures for the purpose of benefitting in worldly things and to avoid conflict which could lead to war and violence.

Recently the misunderstanding between East and West has increased to the extent that violence and belligerence has spread throughout the world. To arrive at peaceful solution for these conflicts at all levels, there needs to be objective dialogue rather than the use of force and violence.

The scholars of Islam encourage dialogue between religions for various reasons, which is summarized in the following:

1. Religious questions are an inextricable part of the reality of the world that we live in today.

2. Religious beliefs compose the background of many of the problems in the world today, since religion has a strong influence on people today and before

3. Religious dialogue is a necessary part of dialogue between civilizations, since religion is a central component of civilizations throughout the world and constitutes a central component of culture and civilization

In summary, Islamic teachings provides a strong foundation for interreligious dialogue in general, and dialogue with people on various topics. Islam sees that the “notion of differences between people is one of God’s principles in the world and occurs by God’s will.” Related to this is the principle of “the right to choose”, so that there is no compulsion in faith. Islam affirms that God created people, into male and female, and into various tribes and nations, so that they can come to know one another and it calls to cooperation and help amongst people. The Prophet of Islam, peace be upon him, engaged in dialogue with the followers of Christianity and Judaism. The constitution that the Prophet established in Madina contained the principles of cooperation and living together and encourages continued dialogue. Since that time dialogue has continued to be enacted by people of various faiths in Islamic Arab Civilization.

talib abdALLAH
04/07/2017, 17h28
The Aims of Dialogue in the Islamic View

The aims of dialogue are arriving at a common view in resisting oppression and doing good. God states, “Say, People of the Book, come to a common word between you and us, that we worship only God and do not associate partners with Him, and do not take any from amongst us as lords other than God. If they turn away, then say witness that we are Muslims.” (Al Imran: 64)

One of the goals that have priority is the goal of getting to know one another, which is achieved by knowing the other truly and by correcting one’s view and misunderstanding of the other. It is possible to bring together in this goal between the indirect approach that arises in discussing topics that concern both sides and the direct approach that concerns certain prioritized rules and misunderstandings.

Another aim is to cooperate in doing good and piety through examining matters of life concerning both sides. God states, “The truth is from your Lord, so do not be deceived. Everyone has a viewpoint that he takes. So seek good deeds. Wherever you are God will reach you all. God is all-powerful over all things.” (al-Baqara: 147-148)

Dialogue of life should stay away from matters of theological disputations, especially in open interreligious dialogue forums. That is, we should not be preoccupied with raising theological differences which are best to be deliberated among the closed circles of theologians of different faith traditions. God reminds us “You have you religion and I have mine.” The question of taking people into account for their beliefs and actions is God’s domain. “Those who believe and those who are Jews, Sabeans, Christians, and Zoroastrians, and those who ascribe partners to God, God will differentiate between them on the Day of Judgment. God is a witness over everything.” (al-Hajj: 17)


wa Asalamu 3alaykoum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh

Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdik. Ashhadu al-la ilaha illa ant. Astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk

اللهمَّ صَلِّ عَلى سَيِّدِنا مُحَمَّدٍ و عَلى آلِهِ و صَحبِهِ و سَلِّم
Allâhumma salli 'alâ Sayyidinâ Muhammadin wa 'alâ âlihi wa sahbihi wa sallim.

وسُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ وَ سَلامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَالْحَمْدُ لِللهِ رَبِّ الْعَلَمِينَ
wa subḥāna rabbika rabbi l-ʿizzati ʿammā yaṣifūn wa-salāmun ʿalā l-mursalīn wa-l-ḥamdu li-llāhi rabbi l-ʿālamīn