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Voir la version complète : 12 Logical Fallacies Best to Avoid - Dr Shadee Elmasri



talib abdALLAH
11/07/2018, 21h04
اَلحَمدُلِلهِ رَبِ العَلَمِينَ ؕ وَالصَّلَوةُ وَ السَّلَامُ عَلَى سَيِـّـدِ المُرسَلِين
اَمَّا بَعدُ فَاَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيطَنِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمَنِ الرَّحِيم




السلام عليكم ورحمة الله تعالى وبركاته

Asalamu 3alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh







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12 Logical Fallacies Best to Avoid


Dr Shadee Elmasri





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1 Slippery Slope:

If A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps through B, C, D & E, then F will eventually happen, too.
Example:

If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers.



2 Hasty Generalization:

Rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts.
Example:

Even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course.



3 Post hoc ergo propter hoc:

(Aka - Correlation vs Causation)

'A' occurred after 'B.’ Therefore, 'B' must have caused 'A.'

Example:

I drank tap water and now I am sick, so the water must have made me sick.



4 Genetic Fallacy:

The origins of a person or theory determines its character or worth.

Example:

The Volkswagen Beetle is an evil car because it was originally designed by Hitler's army.




5 Begging the Claim:

The conclusion that the writer should prove is already validated within the claim!

Example:

Filthy and polluting coal should be banned.



6 Circular Argument:

This restates the argument rather than actually proving it.

Example:

George Bush is a good communicator because he speaks effectively.



7 Either/or:

It oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only two sides or choices, when there might be a middle ground.

Example:

We can either stop using cars or destroy the earth.




8 Ad hominem:

An attack on the character of a person rather than his or her opinions or arguments.

Example:

Green Peace's strategies aren't effective because they are all dirty, lazy hippies.



9 Ad populum:

An emotional appeal that appeals to positive or negative concepts rather than the real issue at hand.

Example:

If you were a true American you would support the rights of people to choose whatever vehicle they want.



10 Red Herring:

A diversion that avoids the key issues rather than addressing them.

Example:

The level of mercury in seafood may be unsafe, but what will fishers do to support their families?!



11 Straw Man:

This move oversimplifies an opponent's viewpoint and then attacks that hollow argument.

Example:

People who don't support the proposed state minimum wage increase, hate poor people.



12 Moral Equivalence:

This fallacy compares minor misdeeds with major atrocities.

Example:

That parking attendant who gave me a ticket is as bad as Hitler.



(Courtesy, Perdue Owl, Ryan Weber, Allen Brizee)






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wa Asalamu 3alaykoum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh




Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdik. Ashhadu al-la ilaha illa ant. Astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk


اللهمَّ صَلِّ عَلى سَيِّدِنا مُحَمَّدٍ و عَلى آلِهِ و صَحبِهِ و سَلِّم
Allâhumma salli 'alâ Sayyidinâ Muhammadin wa 'alâ âlihi wa sahbihi wa sallim.



وسُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ وَ سَلامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَالْحَمْدُ لِللهِ رَبِّ الْعَلَمِينَ
wa subḥāna rabbika rabbi l-ʿizzati ʿammā yaṣifūn wa-salāmun ʿalā l-mursalīn wa-l-ḥamdu li-llāhi rabbi l-ʿālamīn

Ilyes
11/07/2018, 22h32
Wa 'alaykum as-salam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh,

How many times we see that... It's widespread so hard.

Surat 40, verse 5 : "The people of Noah denied before them and the [disbelieving] factions after them, and every nation intended [a plot] for their messenger to seize him, and they disputed by [using] falsehood to [attempt to] invalidate thereby the truth. So I seized them, and how [terrible] was My penalty.".