Voir la version complète : 12 Logical Fallacies Best to Avoid - Dr Shadee Elmasri

talib abdALLAH
11/07/2018, 21h04
اَلحَمدُلِلهِ رَبِ العَلَمِينَ ؕ وَالصَّلَوةُ وَ السَّلَامُ عَلَى سَيِـّـدِ المُرسَلِين
اَمَّا بَعدُ فَاَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيطَنِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمَنِ الرَّحِيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله تعالى وبركاته

Asalamu 3alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh


12 Logical Fallacies Best to Avoid

Dr Shadee Elmasri


1 Slippery Slope:

If A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps through B, C, D & E, then F will eventually happen, too.

If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers.

2 Hasty Generalization:

Rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts.

Even though it's only the first day, I can tell this is going to be a boring course.

3 Post hoc ergo propter hoc:

(Aka - Correlation vs Causation)

'A' occurred after 'B.’ Therefore, 'B' must have caused 'A.'


I drank tap water and now I am sick, so the water must have made me sick.

4 Genetic Fallacy:

The origins of a person or theory determines its character or worth.


The Volkswagen Beetle is an evil car because it was originally designed by Hitler's army.

5 Begging the Claim:

The conclusion that the writer should prove is already validated within the claim!


Filthy and polluting coal should be banned.

6 Circular Argument:

This restates the argument rather than actually proving it.


George Bush is a good communicator because he speaks effectively.

7 Either/or:

It oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only two sides or choices, when there might be a middle ground.


We can either stop using cars or destroy the earth.

8 Ad hominem:

An attack on the character of a person rather than his or her opinions or arguments.


Green Peace's strategies aren't effective because they are all dirty, lazy hippies.

9 Ad populum:

An emotional appeal that appeals to positive or negative concepts rather than the real issue at hand.


If you were a true American you would support the rights of people to choose whatever vehicle they want.

10 Red Herring:

A diversion that avoids the key issues rather than addressing them.


The level of mercury in seafood may be unsafe, but what will fishers do to support their families?!

11 Straw Man:

This move oversimplifies an opponent's viewpoint and then attacks that hollow argument.


People who don't support the proposed state minimum wage increase, hate poor people.

12 Moral Equivalence:

This fallacy compares minor misdeeds with major atrocities.


That parking attendant who gave me a ticket is as bad as Hitler.

(Courtesy, Perdue Owl, Ryan Weber, Allen Brizee)


wa Asalamu 3alaykoum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh

Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdik. Ashhadu al-la ilaha illa ant. Astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk

اللهمَّ صَلِّ عَلى سَيِّدِنا مُحَمَّدٍ و عَلى آلِهِ و صَحبِهِ و سَلِّم
Allâhumma salli 'alâ Sayyidinâ Muhammadin wa 'alâ âlihi wa sahbihi wa sallim.

وسُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ وَ سَلامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَالْحَمْدُ لِللهِ رَبِّ الْعَلَمِينَ
wa subḥāna rabbika rabbi l-ʿizzati ʿammā yaṣifūn wa-salāmun ʿalā l-mursalīn wa-l-ḥamdu li-llāhi rabbi l-ʿālamīn

11/07/2018, 22h32
Wa 'alaykum as-salam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh,

How many times we see that... It's widespread so hard.

Surat 40, verse 5 : "The people of Noah denied before them and the [disbelieving] factions after them, and every nation intended [a plot] for their messenger to seize him, and they disputed by [using] falsehood to [attempt to] invalidate thereby the truth. So I seized them, and how [terrible] was My penalty.".