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Discussion: La confluence de la "jurisprudence des minorités" et le fractionnement de l’islam n’est nullement une coïncidence

  1. #1
    Editeur Avatar de talib abdALLAH
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    Par défaut La confluence de la "jurisprudence des minorités" et le fractionnement de l’islam n’est nullement une coïncidence

    اَلحَمدُلِلهِ رَبِ العَلَمِينَ ؕ وَالصَّلَوةُ وَ السَّلَامُ عَلَى سَيِـّـدِ المُرسَلِين
    اَمَّا بَعدُ فَاَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيطَنِ الرَّجِيمِ
    بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمَنِ الرَّحِيم

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله تعالى وبركاته

    Asalamu 3alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh







    La confluence de la "jurisprudence des minorités"

    et le fractionnement de l’islam n’est nullement une coïncidence




    mercredi 27 juin 2001








    À l’heure où les grandes têtes de la colonisation culturelle dans le monde ourdissent des plans pour fractionner l’islam universel et unique en de multiples " islams" régionaux — par conséquent, différents et antagonistes — s’élèvent et se succèdent les voix appelant à l’établissement de ce qu’ils appellent "la jurisprudence des minorités" [fiqh al-aqalliyyât] qui serait un habillage islamique convenable à l’islam en croissance en Occident — avec ses deux pôles américain et européen — à la différence de « l’autre islam », répandu dans les pays musulmans de façon générale.


    Je demandai : Quelles sont les références et fondements dont émanerait cette "jurisprudence des minorités" ?


    On me répondit : Ils sont nombreux ? : la règle des intérêts généraux [qâ`idat al-masâlih], le fait que les nécessités levent les interdits, la difficulté entraîne l’allègement [al-mashaqah tajlib at-taysîr] et le verset "et Il ne vous a imposé aucune gêne dans la religion".



    Je dis : Mais ces références ne sont guère spécifiques aux musulmans vivant en Europe ou aux Etats-Unis. Ce sont des références d’une jurisprudence islamique universelle non liée à une terre donnée et elles n’ont jamais été la base de ce que vous appelez « la jurisprudence des minorités » spécifiquement.

    En effet, dès lors qu’il y a une « nécessité » dans son acception juridique bien connue, l’interdit qui l’a occasionnée est levé ; chaque fois que la difficulté excède la limite supportable, la dérogation juridique afférente est appliquée et chaque fois que deux intérêts s’opposent sur l’échelle des finalités juridiques, l’intérêt le plus prioritaire est retenu. Nous ne trouvons dans le Coran ni dans la Sounnah, ni dans les paroles de l’un des Imams de la Shari`ah (legislation) islamique que ces références sont spécifiques à la condition des minorités vivant dans les terres de mécréance alors qu’il ne serait pas licite pour les autres musulmans dans le monde islamique d’y recourir et de s’y référer.



    On me rétorqua : Les nécessités, dont émane le besoin insistant pour une jurisprudence spéciale à ces régions, proviennent du fait qu’ils se trouvent dans des sociétés non-islamiques, avec des caractéristiques bien distinctes de celles des sociétés islamiques !



    Je dis : Quel est cet islam qui établit que la seule présence d’un musulman en terre de mécréance est considéré comme une nécessité légitimant une jurisprudence islamique spécifique pour le mettre en harmonie avec les courants de mécréance, de débauche et de désobéissance ?! Pourquoi donc Allâh a-t-Il institué et ordonné l’émigration de la terre de mécréance vers la terre d’islam dès lors qu’il devient impossible pour le musulman d’y appliquer les commandements de l’islam. Le Messager d’Allâh et ses compagnons n’eussent-ils pas séjourné au sein des polythéistes mecquois en se basant sur ce qu’ils ignoraient et que vous appelez « la jurisprudence des minorités » ?



    Et si la seule présence des musulmans dans la terre de mécréance est une source de nécessité justifiant l’innovation d’une nouvelle jurisprudence adaptée à l’état de cette terre et ceux qui y vivent, quels sont alors les gens visés par cette Parole d’Allâh — Exalté et Glorifié ? :



    Ceux qui ont fait du tort à eux-mêmes, les Anges enlèveront leurs âmes en disant : ‹Où en étiez-vous ?› (à propos de votre religion) — ‹Nous étions impuissants sur terre›, dirent-ils. Alors les Anges diront : ‹La terre d’Allâh n’était-elle pas assez vaste pour vous permettre d’émigrer ?› Voilà bien ceux dont le refuge est l’Enfer. Et quelle mauvaise destination ! [1]


    Nous étions optimistes et pensions que la croissance du nombre des musulmans en Occident, avec leur attachement à l’islam et l’alignement sur ses lois, dissoudrait la civilisation occidentale déviante dans le courant de la civilisation islamique.



    Toutefois, aujourd’hui, avec l’appel insistant à ce qu’ils appellent « la jurisprudence des minorités », nous savons que nous sommes menacés par l’opposé de ce qui était l’objet de notre optimisme ? : nous sommes menacés par la dissolution de l’islam dans le courant de la civilisation occidentale déviante, dissolution garantie par cette « jurisprudence ».



    Que les apôtres de cet appel — qui nous est étranger — craignent Allâh et qu’ils sachent que le fruit de cet appel est la réalisation de ce qui est ourdi contre l’islam aujourd’hui, à savoir sa transformation en « islams régionaux et variés ». Nous disposons dans les nombreuses académies juridiques de notre monde arabe et islamique de quoi nous dispenser d’inventer des références particulières, spécifiques à cette nouvelle « jurisprudence » islamique que la législation islamique n’a jamais connues.





    Sheikh Muhammad Sa`îd Ramadân Al-Bûtî



    رحمه الله











    P.-S.


    [1] Sourate 4, An-Nisâ’, Les Femmes, verset 97.








    Source : islamophile.org












    *






    wa Asalamu 3alaykoum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh




    Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdik. Ashhadu al-la ilaha illa ant. Astaghfiruka wa atubu ilayk


    اللهمَّ صَلِّ عَلى سَيِّدِنا مُحَمَّدٍ و عَلى آلِهِ و صَحبِهِ و سَلِّم
    Allâhumma salli 'alâ Sayyidinâ Muhammadin wa 'alâ âlihi wa sahbihi wa sallim.



    وسُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ وَ سَلامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ وَالْحَمْدُ لِللهِ رَبِّ الْعَلَمِينَ

    wa subḥāna rabbika rabbi l-ʿizzati ʿammā yaṣifūn wa-salāmun ʿalā l-mursalīn wa-l-ḥamdu li-llāhi rabbi l-ʿālamīn


  2. #2
    Editeur Avatar de talib abdALLAH
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    Par défaut Jurisprudence des minorités - Conférence à l'Université islamique de Rotterdam en 2007 - Sheikh Muhammad Sa`îd Ramadân Al-Bûtî - En Arabe

    اَلحَمدُلِلهِ رَبِ العَلَمِينَ

    بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمَنِ الرَّحِيم


    Jurisprudence des minorités

    - Conférence à l'Université islamique de Rotterdam en 2007 -

    - Sheikh Muhammad Sa`îd Ramadân Al-Bûtî -

    رحمه الله

    En Arabe






    فقه الأقليات للشيخ محمد سعيد رمضان البوطي رحمه الله

    محاضرة بجامعة روتردام الإسلامية 2007م/ هولندا










  3. #3
    Avatar de Mohamed_
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    Par défaut

    wa alaykoum salam wa rahmatoulahi wa barakatouh

    Le problème c'est lorsque les pays musulmans sont aussi impacté par les même problématique que les pays non musulmans. Je pense que cette article fait référence aux fatwas sur le ribba, et l'utilisation du principe de la nécessité qui lève les interdits, or le ribba est aussi propagé dans les pays musulmans, et à cela s'ajoute des problèmes de logement bien plus important que les pays non musulmans, même louer est compliqué dans certains pays musulman.

    Plutôt que de parler d'émigration du pays non musulman à un pays musulman, est-ce qu'il ne serait pas plus juste de parler d'émigration dans une terre plus favorable même au sein même des pays non musulman, pour éviter par exemple le ribba, aller là où le loyer ou le prix de l'immobilier est moins chère ? Le verset ne parle pas de terre non musulmane à une terre musulmane, il parle seulement d'émigration.

    Est-ce qu'on n'est pas aussi prisonnier d'une jurisprudence qui s'appliquait à une situation spécifique dans le passé, où le monde se divisait en dar al islam, dar al kufr ? Les choses ont changés, le monde musulman a été noyé de législation non islamique. L'injustice et l'ignorance se sont propagées.

    Je suis tout à fait d'accord avec ce que dit le chaykh al Bouti rahimoulah, je vois que cette jurisprudence de la minorité s'est propagée pour répondre à un changement, mais avant de rendre le haram halal, il faut vraiment mesurer le réel bénéfice, entre sauver sa peau en mangeant du porc et emprunter des milliers d'euros dans le monde dans lequel on vie et finir esclave de sa dette tout en participant à alimenter ce système qui détruit des vies... et en plus encourager les musulmans d'une région ou d'un pays à participer à cela....

  4. #4
    Editeur Avatar de talib abdALLAH
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    Par défaut

    Citation Envoyé par Mohamed_ Voir le message
    wa alaykoum salam wa rahmatoulahi wa barakatouh

    Le problème c'est lorsque les pays musulmans sont aussi impacté par les même problématique que les pays non musulmans. Je pense que cette article fait référence aux fatwas sur le ribba, et l'utilisation du principe de la nécessité qui lève les interdits, or le ribba est aussi propagé dans les pays musulmans, et à cela s'ajoute des problèmes de logement bien plus important que les pays non musulmans, même louer est compliqué dans certains pays musulman.

    Plutôt que de parler d'émigration du pays non musulman à un pays musulman, est-ce qu'il ne serait pas plus juste de parler d'émigration dans une terre plus favorable même au sein même des pays non musulman, pour éviter par exemple le ribba, aller là où le loyer ou le prix de l'immobilier est moins chère ? Le verset ne parle pas de terre non musulmane à une terre musulmane, il parle seulement d'émigration.

    Est-ce qu'on n'est pas aussi prisonnier d'une jurisprudence qui s'appliquait à une situation spécifique dans le passé, où le monde se divisait en dar al islam, dar al kufr ? Les choses ont changés, le monde musulman a été noyé de législation non islamique. L'injustice et l'ignorance se sont propagées.

    Je suis tout à fait d'accord avec ce que dit le chaykh al Bouti rahimoulah, je vois que cette jurisprudence de la minorité s'est propagée pour répondre à un changement, mais avant de rendre le haram halal, il faut vraiment mesurer le réel bénéfice, entre sauver sa peau en mangeant du porc et emprunter des milliers d'euros dans le monde dans lequel on vie et finir esclave de sa dette tout en participant à alimenter ce système qui détruit des vies... et en plus encourager les musulmans d'une région ou d'un pays à participer à cela....

    As-salam 'alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh



    Tes observations sont interressantes Mohamed.

    Par rapport au différents points que tu as relevé, il y a des explications détaillées du Cheikh Al-Bouti (Rahimahullah), pour chacun d'entre eux.

    Je ne veux pas prendre le risque de mal restituer la pensée du Cheikh, de mal transmettre ses propos, le processus d'appropriation et d'assimilation de nouvelles connaissances demande un certains temps, répondre serait pratiquement donner une fatwa sans en avoir la compétence (je n'ai pas dit que l'on ne pouvait pas y réfléchir et essayer de comprendre les tenants et aboutissants d'une situation donnée et les avis donnés par les savants en raisonnant de façon correcte)

    Ce que je peux faire à mon niveau c'est te donner les réponses données par lui-même (rahimahullah), par ses traducteurs pour que tu puisses toi-même t'informer inch'Allah.

    Puisse Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala augmenter nos connaissances, notre guidance et notre compréhension.


    Le problème c'est lorsque les pays musulmans sont aussi impacté par les même problématique que les pays non musulmans. Je pense que cette article fait référence aux fatwas sur le ribba, et l'utilisation du principe de la nécessité qui lève les interdits, or le ribba est aussi propagé dans les pays musulmans, et à cela s'ajoute des problèmes de logement bien plus important que les pays non musulmans, même louer est compliqué dans certains pays musulmans
    Une des craintes du Cheikh Al-Bouti (rahimahullah) a été le fait que des savants musulmans en viennent à faire des concessions excessives dans les domaines de la jurisprudence par des "ruses chariatiques", que cette nouvelle jurisprudence utilise avec excès certains avis minoritaires voire des avis erronés pour faciliter l'intégration des populations musulmanes en Occident.

    Le cheikh avait aussi une vision sur le long terme de la population musulmane en Occident et se préocupait du fait qu'au bout de deux générations par exemple, l'ignorance des musulmans concernant les choses nécéssairement connu de la religion combiné a l'aplication de cette jurisprudence entraine une assimilation par les musulmans de ce qui est contraire à l'Islam, que ce qui est dérogation devienne une norme et à terme, qu'une sorte de laxisme ne conduise à la perte de la taqwa.

    Wa 'Allahu A'lam

    Je te recommande ce livre inch'Allah :

    L'Islam et l'occident - Un dialogue pour l'avenir - Cheikh Mohammad Said Ramadan Al Bouti

    A partir de la page 127, il y a un chapitre en rapport avec la critique émise sur certaines fatwa.


    Le texte en anglais que vous pouvez lire ci-dessous est consultable içi : meeraath.infofiend.org/?p=465

    En PDF : http://www.naseemalsham.com/en/Pages...%20Islamic.pdf


    Si quelqu'un peut poster le texte en français qui est dans le livre, inch'Allah, bismillah.


    Rulings that Appear Islamic But Actually Serve the West




    Posted on February 24, 2015 by al-Hajj





    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم



    By Imam Muḥammad Saʿīd Ramaḍān al-Būṭī[1]


    Translated by Mahdi Lock




    I don’t know of any matter in the religion that provokes more awe in the soul when it is approached and is more conducive to biding one’s time and being wary of it than the matter of fatwā, for the scholar finds himself in front of something that he must take up the cause of…

    and I don’t know of any matter in the religion in this current age of ours that is more attainable, easier to practice and has more people crowded around it and competing for it than the matter of fatwā.


    I reflect on the stances that the Imams of the Islamic Revealed Law, those whose vast knowledge, accurate understanding and high rank in derivation has been testified to by generations, along with their upright conduct, abstinence in the life of this world and carefulness in dealing with others.


    I see them looking at the job of fatwā as something undertaken on behalf of Allah, Mighty and Majestic, so where does this insolence when approaching it come from and how is it that they have come to treat it lightly and hasten to make a decision therein?


    Abū ʿAmr ibn al-Ṣalāḥ narrates on the authority of ʿAbdur Raḥmān ibn Abī Laylā that he said, ‘I met one hundred and twenty of the Helpers[2] from the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.


    One of them was asked about an issue and he passed it on to someone else, and he in turn passed it on to someone else until it eventually came back to the first person.’[3]

    Ibn Masʿūd said, ‘Whoever gives a fatwā regarding everything he is asked about is mad.’


    Al-Ḥāfiẓ Abū ʿUmar ibn ʿAbdul Barr mentioned on the authority of al-Qāsim ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr al-Ṣiddīq, may Allah be pleased with him, that a man came to him and asked him about something and al-Qāsim replied, ‘I don’t know the answer.’ The man then started saying, ‘I was pushed to go to you. I don’t know anyone else.’


    Al-Qāsim said, ‘Don’t look at the length of my beard and the multitude of people around me. By Allah, I don’t know the answer.’ Then he said, ‘By Allah, that my tongue be cut off is more beloved to me than talking about something that I have no knowledge of.’ Sufyān ibn ʿUyaynah said, ‘The most impudent of people when it comes to giving fatwā are the least of them in knowledge.’[4]

    I don’t know of any difference of opinion regarding the jurists’[5] affirmation that the independent muftī must be an absolute mujtahid.[6] If he is a mujtahid within the madhhab that he belongs to then he is not independent, and he has rules and restrictions that he should not step outside of.


    If he is below the rank of ijtihād[7] in the madhhab then he is an imitator[8] or follower.[9] If he is asked for a fatwā in a matter then he must relate to the questioner the ruling that has been given in the madhhab of his Imam. It is not permissible for him to go beyond that and refer to another

    Imam, just as it is not permissible for him to give a fatwā based on a weak position in the madhhab or that which counters the correct position in the madhhab, unless he is a mujtahid in a certain topic of fiqh, and no one else, in which case he can give a fatwā therein relying on his own ijtihād, and this is based on the correct position that ijtihād can be separated. [10]



    ***


    I reflect on these rules, which are agreed upon with regards to practising fatwā, as far as I know, and I look at the awe and fear that would be overflowing in the hearts of the early generations and those who followed their path from this Ummah in undertaking the task of fatwā, and their severe warning against embarking boldly upon it.


    Then I look at what the state of many imams and scholars of the Muslims has been reduced to, with regards to this massive responsibility, for in illustrations of the opposite I see something frightful bearing warning of a calamitous tribulation.


    It is possible that many readers are thinking that I’m referring to the matter of fatwā being approached without knowledge, and hastening to answer people’s questions without long and thorough consideration and reflection, and this is something that happens and is witnessed, no doubt about it, and it is of the utmost seriousness, as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has informed us. However, I am talking about something more dangerous than this and far more wicked.

    Indeed, what is happening today in many of our Islamic societies, and in Western societies where there are Islamic minorities, is that certain people are working towards changing the established rulings of the Revealed Law and replacing them, under the banner of renewing[11] Islamic jurisprudence[12]…and this is only being done at the hands of people who wear the garments of Islam and present themselves as calling to it and defending it.


    The major portion of the incentive that calls to following this path is represented in the capitulation of most Islamic activities, in their various forms, to the pressure that is applied by the callers and promoters of the stream of modernity, and in the submission of those carrying out these activities to the unjust accusations that are directed at the Islamic Revealed Law,

    such as the claim that it is scripturally rigid, or the lack of judging by what is called the ‘spirit’ of the Islamic Revealed Law when taking hold of it…and both politics and melting into party life play a large role in supporting this stream, and boldly delving into the rules of ijtihād and into the foundations of dealing with the rulings of the Islamic Revealed Law.


    Achieving this objective can only be done by way of a series of fatāwā that appear to be of the Revealed Law in their titles and appearance but whose innermost ideas and contents serve the destructive plans of others.


    Indeed, playing around with the rulings of the Revealed Law cannot be arrived at today by openly declaring the sought-after objective and manifesting the secrets of what is being intended.


    Rather, the matter therein is that it would unleash reactions from people who feel strongly about the Faith (and they are many), feelings which make them cling more stringently to Allah’s rulings, Mighty and Majestic is He, and they would jump up and attack anyone who declares that they are playing around with them and they would move towards tearing up whatever caused it by any and every means possible.


    Rather, today, the only way to fool around with them[13] is to put an end to them, to send in fraudulent and counterfeit novelties by way of fatwā channels that have religious inviolability.


    This is what is happening today in the public square in our Islamic societies. You look at the building of the Islamic Revealed Law and you can see that it is gradually being emptied of its contents and in its place are put ready made and available rulings and decisions, which have no connection to Islam,

    that wait for the team that is responsible for transferring them, via the tunnel of fatwā, and inserting them into the building of the Islamic Revealed Law. This is how these these rulings that bear a counterfeit Islamic identity become settled within the structure of Islam, woven from baseless, delusive fatāwā.


    Furthermore, this transferring mainly takes place by way of one of two factors:


    The first of them is the official political factor…and it manifests itself in the hidden contract that normally takes place between the authorities of a certain state and whoever they choose to be a muftī therein. Indeed, part of what is required of him is to be in harmony and agreement with whatever the current policy dictates by working towards diminishing the authority of the Islamic Revealed Law over that society, especially in matters connected to the economic system and rulings regarding the family and relations between men and women, and that which is connected to moral restrictions in general.


    The affair of whoever comes to choose the post of giving fatwā is that he prefers his worldly life over his Hereafter and the pleasure of his earthly rulers over the pleasure of his Lord. He is sacrificing his religion in order to remain in his post, desiring to achieve the higher post that follows it.


    Thus, the secret contract is confirmed with the authorities that chose him so that they can use him as religious cover in order to do irreligious things! He continues to surprise the Muslims with fatāwā that have been emptied of what is clearly stated in Allah’s Book and authentically related from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.


    Indeed I know notable jurists in Islamic lands who, before they took up the post of fatwā, were examples of uprightness upon true guidance and undertaking this trust on behalf of Allah. They did not declare the unlawful lawful. They were not negligent with regards to obligations. They did not alter or change.


    Then, when one of them was granted this post the people were surprised to see the opposite of what he was known for coming from him…the usury that he used to go to great lengths to warn against became a permissible commercial action, zakāh came to no longer be obligatory on money accumulated in banks and funds, only the profits that arose from it.


    He is the same person who used to give fatwā according to what was known and agreed upon, i.e. zakāt being obligatory on both capital and its profit. A young lady adhering to covering[14] the head became a matter dependent on benefit[15] and could be left aside if it was incompatible with her high school or university studies.


    He is the same person who used to constantly draw attention to the obligation women have to veil anything that can be a source of temptation and beauty. Striving to die as a martyr and desiring Allah’s pleasure according to its rules and restrictions in the Revealed Law became, in his ijtihād, an act of suicide that hurls a person into blasphemy and strips him of his faith.


    Before sitting on this chair, he was the one who envied these mujāhidīn and encouraged them and had no doubt that, if their intentions were pure, they would go back to Allah, Mighty and Majestic, as martyrs.[16]


    What is it that would make one of these people remove the job of adhering to Allah’s Revealed Law from their lives in order to take on, entirely of their own choice, the task of altering and changing Allah’s rulings?


    Indeed it is the secret job that is entrusted to him: the policy of the state stipulates (as is imagined by those in charge of it) that it comply with the demands of great powers,[17] those who have declared war against Islam. Their demands are embodied in trimming away at the edges of the religion, diluting its rules and replacing its rulings.


    But what is the path by which this objective of theirs is to be achieved, leaving aside the fear of the Ummah’s restlessness and that the flames of revolution will be stoked therein? Indeed it is the path of fatāwā that are outwardly Islamic but inwardly plot against Islam. Indeed they are the readymade fatāwā that are manufactured on demand, waiting to be declared!



    ***


    This is the first motive: the official motive of the muftī and the political motive of the state that appointed him!


    As for the second factor, or motive, it is the party motive. What I mean here is Islamic parties, i.e. those which openly declare their effort to impose the Revealed Law of Islam on their society…so what would push them to change Allah’s rulings?


    The short answer is that those in charge of the party…any Islamic party…strive just like all other parties to get into power by all possible means, in view of the fact that, according to their conviction, it is the only way to administer the helm of authority and impose the desired law, and thereupon impose the Revealed Law of Islam and the Islamic system of governance upon society.


    Regardless of the validity or invalidity of this opinion, what always happens in the course of striving for this objective, the objective of getting into power, is that those in charge of the party spare no effort in exhausting the various political means in order to arrive at this objective, and what they always fall back on is that this holy objective justifies these means for which there is no alternative.


    However, on many occasions, these means demand the flattering of others, namely influential people, and to agree with them in realizing what they are seeking, and to a large extent it is foreign powers that secretly control the helm of global policy. It is from the habit of these people to choose for themselves notable Muslims who will act as agents on their behalf, implementing their plans and following the path that has been laid out for them.


    In view of the fact that Islamic parties are included, just like other parties, within the political spectrum, subject to its enticements and governed within its stream, then it is inevitable that their leaders will look to extend political bridges between themselves and many of the traditional politicians in the Islamic world, as well as many foreign powers in the west, using favours from them whenever the situation demands it…and what is demanded of them is to demonstrate that there is no terrorism in Islam and that its rulings are based on magnanimity and adaptation and that they are subject to the requirements of modernisation and development.


    The unavoidable outcome for anyone who capitulates to the stream of this policy and falls into its enticements is to comply with these demands and those like them. It is the only ladder that leads to power, and to pave the way to it…and it is known that Islamic intellectuals who apply themselves in this fashion are able to justify going into a series of these adaptations and compliances,

    arguing that it is a means for which there is no alternative in order to pave the way to power. In view of the fact that this is the only means of arriving at this objective, which is to unfold the Islamic system and Allah’s Revealed Law upon society, then that without which the obligatory cannot be carried out is itself obligatory![18]


    Indeed they are justifications that have false premises and absurd conclusions. However, the current situation is not sufficient for opening up another discussion about this issue, which has been researched exhaustively, and which bears the slogan of ‘repeated experiments’.[19]


    Moving forward from these justifications, these other groups, groups affiliated to the Islamic parties, concoct baseless fatāwā according to need and fabricated rulings in the Revealed Law that actually don’t exist.


    To a large extent, the manufacturing of these fatāwā takes place in the west, where there are Islamic minorities and these minorities and the ruling authorities have problems of incompatibility between the ruling systems and Islamic obligations.


    In order to demonstrate to these ruling authorities that Islam is easy and pliant like a reed, that it twists and turns according to what is sought and is harmonious with whatever environment it is in, that it is absorbed into the established system, and in order for those in charge of Islamic party activity to garner support and to be assisted in their political efforts, either in those western societies or in Islamic countries, those in charge of these activities continue to colour the Islamic system and Islamic rulings with the dye of permanent subordinateness.


    In western societies, to make manifest this phenomenon, they have set up something called the European Council for Fatwa and Research. What one notices is that many of its members have no knowledge of fiqh and have no connection to it whatsoever. Its administration and activity go back to its party leadership, which makes the Council’s fatāwā and rulings subservient to the requirements of the policy that I have spoken about.


    The short-term goal is to present Islam as a religion whose minority merges into the system of the ever-differing majority, and it is does not agree to differ with it or separate from it at all.


    As for the long-term goal, it is for those who hold this Islamic political view to gain the trust of influential westerners, who will then make it possible for them to achieve power in their societies and their Islamic countries, and the opportunity to be in power therein is according to what this adapting, lenient, capitulating Islam requires based on the various streams of modernity and modernisation.


    Following this path, this fatwa council has issued a series of rulings and fatāwā in the Revealed Law and those who are in charge of it and administering it know that they are baseless fatāwā demanded by the policy, such as giving a fatwā that it is permissible to procure usurious loans for unforeseen needs, that it is permissible to be involved in usurious transactions,

    that it is permissible for a Muslim woman to remain married to her disbelieving husband, that it is permissible to work in businesses that deal in intoxicants and unlawful foods, that it is permissible for a Muslim woman to comply with a judicial system that prohibits the ijāb, and so forth.


    What is strange is that those who make use of the European Fatwa Council for the sake of rulings like these justify their undertaking of fatwā in the Revealed Law by using the argument that they are mujtahid scholars who possess all the rules and conditions of fatwā. Thus, when they follow a baseless fatwā that is rejected by the majority of Imams,

    they forget or pretend to forget their own ranks in ijtihād, which rejects imitating and following, and go back to being followers or indeed imitators of people who deviate from Allah’s path and deviate from the principles of knowledge and the rules of the Book and the Sunnah, and thus they issue deviant, baseless rulings.


    ***

    Dernière modification par talib abdALLAH ; 22/01/2018 à 21h35.

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    ***

    O brethren, indeed the actions of demolishing the building of the Islamic Revealed Law are done by two tools of destruction:


    The first is the tool of the war declared against it, and the entire Islamic world is feeling the pressure of this war, and the moral and material methods of pressure that are applied to it in order to change its cultural and educational ways are only from the coat tails of this declared war.


    The second is the tool of readymade fatāwā that are fashioned and provided on demand, and what is desired from them is the acquisition of worldly benefits and gains, or to garner favours from people in power in other countries, those who give many of us the impression that in their hand is the capacity to loose and bind,[20] to accept and refuse and to push forward and put back.


    So where is the way out? Where could we possibly find someone who will protect the building of the Islamic Revealed Law from these two tools of destruction that never slacken in their efforts to wreck and destroy?


    It is assumed that I will say that we can find refuge in the individuals who are the leaders of the Islamic world, or those who speak on their behalf and act in their name, and it is the Organisation of the Islamic Conference[21]…but we all know that most of these leaders have forgotten Allah, His counsels and His rulings in the ups and downs of their profound concern for their immediate interests and their fleeting thrones.


    They don’t hesitate, and they would be the last to do so, to subjugate religious fatāwā to that which guarantees the facilitation of their interests and their remaining on their thrones. As for the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, in reality it is nothing but a tall building for a most wretched grave! If the people crouching therein happen to move it is only for ceremonial functions or to promote protocols that are required for the sake of flattery or deemed necessary in order to guarantee worldly gains!


    Where, then, will we find refuge?


    Perhaps refuge can be found in the remaining remnant of rightly-guided scholars who know Allah and have placed the fear of Him in their hearts, and they are certain that He alone harms and benefits, exalts and humiliates, gives and withholds. They rely on Him in truth and they entrust their affairs to Him. They come together to renew their allegiance to Allah and to give Him sincere pledges that they will be trustees over His Revealed Law and guardians of His religion.


    Then, from their meetings and cooperation, they have formed knowledge-based, religious authority[22] which comes out openly with the truth and corrects false notions. It cancels baseless religious fatāwā and answers the questions of those seeking a fatwā, wherever they may be, in accordance with the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and in accordance with what the majority of the First Three Generations have agreed upon, without excess and without going beyond the bounds, with facilitation but without dilution, with prudence but without making things difficult.


    I am absolutely certain that this remnant of righteous scholars exists, and how can I not be absolutely certain about what the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, has promised? Likewise, I am absolutely certain that our Islamic Ummah still has much goodness in it. Indeed, it contains both old and young who re-establish themselves upon the truth and their fear of changing, their carefulness[23] in conduct and following the way of the righteous First Three Generations.


    Indeed what is sought from these excellent members of this Ummah of ours is that they gather around these righteous scholars who act upon their knowledge, and that they not accept answers to their questions except from them. It is certainly within their capacity to tell the difference between the state of someone who is truthful with Allah and someone who is truthful with his nafs and his desires and passions.

    If the difference is not clear to them then let them refer to the scales that that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called to when he said, {The lawful is clear and the unlawful is clear and between them are doubtful matters which many people do not know. Whoever guards himself against doubtful matters has secured his Religion and his honour…}[24] and he said, {Ask your heart for a fatwā, even if the muftīs have given you a fatwā}.[25]


    And however much some of them may use the excuse that they are ignorant of the difference between authentic fatāwā in the Revealed Law and counterfeit, baseless fatāwā, or ignorant of the difference between scholars who are truthful with Allah and those who are truthful with their desires and passions, they will never be more ignorant than the American lady who became Muslim without her husband.


    When she asked about the ruling in the Islamic Revealed Law regarding remaining married to her disbelieving husband, the answer from the Council of Fatwa and Research was there was no objection to her remaining married to him!


    Without thinking about it a great deal or asking other scholars, the lady asked her heart for a fatwā and then said, ‘Indeed acting upon this answer does not satisfy my feelings of faith in Allah’, and it did not evoke in her heart the desired tranquillity. She thus apologised to her husband for not being able to remain married to him and has bid him farewell until they meet again in the magnanimity of Islam.



    [1] Translated from the Imam’s book al-Islam wa al-Gharb (Damascus: Dār al-Fikr, 2007), p.143-156


    [2] (tn): Ar. al-Anṣār


    [3] Adab al-Fatwā by Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ, ed. Rifʿat Fawzī ʿAbdul Muṭṭalib, p.28


    [4] ibid. p.59 onwards


    [5] Ar. fuqahāʾ


    [6] Ar. mujtahid muṭlaq


    [7] (tn): i.e. personal reasoning


    [8] Ar. muqallid


    [9] Ar. tābiʿ


    [10] See the introduction to Imam al-Nawawī’s al-Majmūʿ, al-Munīriyyah edition, p.40 onwards, and see al-Mustaṣfā by a-Ghazālī (2/392), Būlāq edition.


    [11] Ar. tajdīd


    [12] Ar. fiqh


    [13] (tn): i.e. the rulings of the Revealed Law


    [14] Ar. ḥijāb


    [15] Ar. maṣlaḥah


    [16] It is known that what we hear of car bomb attacks against Muslims on the pretext that they are assisting oppressive rulers and the like, such as what is happening in Iraq now, is not consistent with the rules and restrictions of the Revealed Law. Thus, they are not considered acts of martyrdom but rather unlawful crimes.


    [17] (tn): i.e. those sovereign states that are recognised as having the ability to exert their influence on a global scale


    [18] Ar. fama la yatimmu al-wājibu illa bihi fa huwa wājib, for example, the obligation al-alāh cannot be completed without wuḍūʾ, and therefore wuḍūʾ is also an obligation


    [19] (tn): or trial and error


    [20] Ar. al-ḥall wa al-ʿaqd


    [21] (tn): Now known as the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, since 2011


    [22] Ar. marjaʿiyah


    [23] Ar. warʿa


    [24] Agreed upon from the ḥadīth of al-Nuʿmān ibn Bashīr (tn): Please see the sixth ḥadīth in Al-Arbaʿīn Al-Nawawiyyah.


    [25] Narrated by al-Bukhārī in al-ārīkh from the ḥadīth of Wābiṣah
    Dernière modification par talib abdALLAH ; 22/01/2018 à 21h35.

  6. #6
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    l'utilisation du principe de la nécessité qui lève les interdits
    Concernant ce sujet, sur le site du Cheikh al-Bouti (rahimahullah), il y a ce texte en anglais d'un traducteur de ses livres évocant la position traditionnelle, içi c'est le Cheikh Wahba al-Zuhayli (rahimahullah) qui donne les explications :


    Understanding
    Ḍarūrah and Ḥājjah and Their General Rules

    By Imam Wahbah Az-Zu
    aylī
    , may Allah have mercy on him




    Linguistically, ḍarūrah, as Al-Jurjānī has said in his Taʿrīfāt, is derived from the word ḍarar[1], and it is something that befalls one and cannot be repelled.

    Terminologically, it has many approximate meanings, including what has been stated by Al-Jaṣāṣ, Abū Bakr Ar-Rāzī: ‘It is fear of harm or the destruction of oneself or some of one’s limbs as a result of not eating.’[2]

    There is also the expression of some contemporaries: ‘A ḍarūrah is more difficult to repel than a ḥājjah, for a ḍarūrah is that which if one goes against it the consequence is danger, such as being forced to seek refuge and fearing that one will die of starvation. It is not a condition that destruction[3] be realised by refraining from that which is prohibited. Rather, it suffices that refraining would lead to unbearable weakness, or some harm to one’s health.’[4]

    The outward purport of this definition of ḍarūrah is heading towards the necessity of food and medicine, and other things can be analogically deduced from that. Its general rule is that it is everything that would lead to harm or danger to one’s person if one were to go against it, and so forth, and could possibly lead to destruction.

    As for ḥājjah, it is more general than ḍarūrah, and it is that which if not responded to will lead to distress and difficulty, or some hardship or adversity that will not lead to destruction.

    As for maṣlaḥah, it is the benefit that the Wise Lawgiver intends for His slaves by preserving their Dīn, their lives, their intellects, their lineage and their wealth according to a specific sequence that they have in relation to one another.[5]

    The difference between ḍarūrah and ḥājjah is from two angles:

    The first is that ḍarūrah is based on an action that must be done in order for one to fulfill their responsibility, and a person simply can’t leave it off. As for ḥājjah, it is based on expansion and facilitation with regards to something that a person can leave off.

    Thus, the furnishing of man’s needs falls under the category of ḍarūrah, such as clothing, shelter and refuge are from necessities (ḍarūrīyāt). Thus, the guardian of a minor must fulfill these needs for him, even if he has to sell real estate belonging to the minor. As for getting the minor married or teaching him, these merely fall under ḥājjah, and as a result of that, the Ḥānafīs hold that marrying off a young girl can only be done by means of the father or the grandfather and with a dowry that is similar to that of other women like her and she is married to someone who is suitable.

    The second is that the exceptional rulings that are affirmed by ḍarūrah are by and large rulings of temporary permissibility for something that is forbidden and its prohibition in the Revealed Law is clear and text-based.[6] As for the rulings that are based on ḥājjah, in most cases they do not contradict a clear text. Rather, most of the rulings of the Revealed Law that are found in their regard contradict analogy[7], due to them being based on ḥājjah. Thus, they contradict general principles as opposed to a text, and in most cases the ruling is fixed therein and it bears the attribute of permanence and constancy. The one in need benefits from it as well as others.

    The rulings that are established for ḥājjah can be like the rulings that are established for ḍarūrah and thus temporarily permit something that is forbidden and contradict the forbidding text, such as instances of special ḥājjah that fall under the category of ḍarūrah.

    [Translated from Qaḍāyā Al-Fiqh wa Al-Fikr Al-Muʿāṣir (Damascus: Dar Al-Fikr, 2008) v.2, p.100-101]

    Translated By Mahdi Lock





    [1] (tn): i.e. harm

    [2] Aḥkām Al-Qurʿān, 1/150 and what follows. See also Kashf Al-Asrār by Al-Bazdawī, 4/1518, Al-Qawānīn Al-Fiqhiyya by Ibn Juzay, p.173, Ash-Sharḥ Al-Kabīr by Ad-Dardīr, 2/115, Qawāʾid Az-Zarkashī (Al-Manthūr fī Tartīb Al-Qawāʾīd Al-Fiqhiyya) manuscript 137, no.8543, Al-Maktaba Az-Ẓāhiriyya in Damasus, Al-Mughnī 8/595, Mughnī Al-Muḥtāj 4/306

    [3] (tn): i.e. death

    [4] Al-Madkhāl Al-Fiqhī Al-ʿĀm by Ustādh, Ash-Sheikh Muṣṭafā Az-Zarqāʾ: f.600, 603

    [5] Al-Maḥṣūl by Ar-Rāzī, p.194, and Al-Mustaṣfā by Al-Ghazāli, 1/139

    [6] (tn): i.e. in the Book and Sunnah

    [7] Ar. qiyās



    Source: naseemalsham.com/en/Pages.php?page=readDynamicCom&id=54258&comid=96&na me=Research%20and%20Articles&sub=Understanding%20% E1%B8%8Car%C5%ABrah%20and%20%E1%B8%A4%C4%81jjah%20 and%20Their%20General%20Rules
    Dernière modification par talib abdALLAH ; 22/01/2018 à 22h05.

  7. #7
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    Plutôt que de parler d'émigration du pays non musulman à un pays musulman, est-ce qu'il ne serait pas plus juste de parler d'émigration dans une terre plus favorable même au sein même des pays non musulman, pour éviter par exemple le ribba, aller là où le loyer ou le prix de l'immobilier est moins chère ? Le verset ne parle pas de terre non musulmane à une terre musulmane, il parle seulement d'émigration.

    Est-ce qu'on n'est pas aussi prisonnier d'une jurisprudence qui s'appliquait à une situation spécifique dans le passé, où le monde se divisait en dar al islam, dar al kufr ? Les choses ont changés, le monde musulman a été noyé de législation non islamique. L'injustice et l'ignorance se sont propagées.
    Privilégier un pays musulman autant que possible pour l'émigration et vers un pays non-musulman avec des conditions comme le fait que le pays non-musulman accepte le musulman en son sol, qu'il y ai la possibilité de précher, de pratiquer sa religion :

    - Hijra/Dar al Harb/Dar al Kufr/Dar al Islam :

    source : naseemalsham.com

    The Abodes of the Earth

    What is the Middle Way?


    By Mahdi Lock




    Introduction


    This article has been compiled in order to clarify the current confusion that exists regarding the terms Dar Al-Islam, Dar Al-Ḥarb, Dar Al-Kufr and Hijra. If Allah so wills, it will be made clear that no single term can be applied in blanket fashion to the entire world. Rather, those same classifications that the great scholars of Islam have used throughout history still apply today, and with Allah alone is every success.



    Dar Al-Islam and Hijra

    In Al-Arbaʿīn An-Nawawiyyah, Imam an-Nawawī, the muʿtamad source for the Shāfiʿī school, quotes the great Mālikī scholar, Qāḍī Abū Bakr Ibn Al-ʿArabī[1], who said:

    ‘The ʿulamāʾ, may Allah be pleased with them, have divided travel in the earth into flight and search, and the former sub-divides into six sub-divisions:

    ‘First, going out from the abode of war to the abode of Islam, and this remains until the Day of Resurrection. That which ceased with the Conquest [of Makkah] according to his words, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, “There is no emigration after the Conquest [of Makka]”[2], was the emigration to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, where he was.

    ‘Second, leaving the people of innovation. Ibn Al-Qāsim said, ‘I heard Mālik say, “It is not permitted for anyone to remain in a land in which the Salaf[3] are being cursed.”’

    ‘Third, leaving a land where the ḥarām is predominant, since it is an obligation upon every Muslim to seek the ḥalāl.

    ‘Fourth, fleeing from harm to one’s body. It is one of the bounties of Allah that He makes an allowance for that. If one fears for oneself in a place then Allah permits one to leave it, and fleeing with oneself will save one from that peril. The first person to do this was Ibrāhīm, peace be upon him, when he feared his people and said, “I am leaving this place to follow the pleasure of my Lord.” [Al-ʿAnkabūt 29:26] Allah the Exalted has also told us about Mūsā, peace be upon him, saying: “So he left there fearful and on his guard.” [Al-Qaa 28:21]

    ‘Fifth, leaving unhealthy cities from fear of illness to go to a healthy land. He, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, permitted the ʿAraniyyīn[4], who found Madīna bad for their health, to leave and go to pasture-land.

    ‘Sixth, leaving from fear of financial harm, since the sanctity of a Muslim’s wealth is the same as the sanctity of his blood.’[5]



    What is Dar Al-Islam?


    The contemporary Shāfiʿī scholar, Sheikh Muḥammad Saʿīd Ramaḍān Al-Būtī[6], states:

    ‘According to what the Imams of the Four Madhabs have agreed upon, it is the country or land in which the power of the Muslims and their leadership has entered, such that they are able to manifest their Islam and keep away from their enemies, whether this is accomplished by conquest and fighting or peace and conciliation, or something of that nature.

    ‘In terms of defining Dar Al-Islam, the expressions of the fuqahāʾ have differed, but these differences are only in wording. All of these definitions agree that [Dar al-Islam] is when the Muslims are able to have their own rule over that land, such that each one of them is able to make the rulings of Islam and its outward rites superior therein.[7]

    ‘This Islamic rule over some land is what makes it Dar al-Islam, and this is regardless of whether the population are Muslims or not, such as a country that the Muslims have conquered and its people are settled therein by paying the jizya[8] or something of that nature.[9]’[10]
    After discussing the rulings of Dar Al-Islam, Sheikh al-Būṭī goes on to say:

    ‘Through knowing these rulings one will notice that the implementation of the rulings of the Islamic Revealed Law is not a condition for considering the abode Dar Al-Islam. Rather, it is from the rights of Dar Al-Islam and it is the responsibility of the Muslims. If the Muslims fall short in carrying out the various rulings of Islam in the Islamic abode that Allah has caused them to inherit, then this does not stop that abode from being Dar Al-Islam, but those who are falling short are sinful and bear the burden for their sin.’[11]



    What is Dar Al-
    arb?

    In his book Fiqh As-Sīrah, Sheikh Al-Būṭī[12] says:

    ‘The “abode of war” is, by extension, any place in which it is not possible for a Muslim to perform his religiously prescribed duties, such as prayer, fasting, meeting for communal worship, issuing the public call to prayer, and any other outward rites associated with Islam.’[13]



    Where does Dar Al-Islam come from?


    Another contemporary Shāfiʿī scholar, Sheikh Wahba Az-Zuḥaylī[14], states:

    ‘The Prophetic emigration to Al-Madīna Al-Munawwara (Yathrib), and the two treaties of ‘Aqaba that preceded it, are the foundation for establishing or forming the Islamic state, or Dar Al-Islam in the terminology of our fuqahāʾ. With it the identity of the Muslims was distinguished from that of the idol-worshippers and in Al-Madina the first pillars of security and stability were firmly established and the Prophet’s political authority was manifested. This authority is now considered the essential element in forming a state.’[15]



    What does this mean now?


    Sheikh Wahba Az-Zuḥaylī was asked:

    ‘Is it permissible in the Revealed Law to acquire the citizenship of a foreign, non-Muslim country or to reside in that foreign country, or is it impermissible?’

    His answer:

    ‘Our ʿulamāʾ, such as Ibn Al-‘Arabī in Akām Al-Qurʿān and An-Nawawī in Al-Arbaʿīn An-Nawawiyyah (p.9-10),[16] have affirmed that Hijra, or leaving Dar Al-Ḥarb for Dar Al-Islam, is a ruling that remains in place until the Day of Resurrection. It is not permissible for a Muslim to reside in Dar Al-Kufr, especially if he fears tribulation for his religion, because in residing amongst them their multitude is increased, except in the case of, as Al-Māwardī has stated: ‘If it comes to be that he, and his family and people, are able to manifest their religion therein, it is not permissible for them to emigrate because the place in which he is in may become Dar Al-Islam.’ This is the short answer.

    ‘As for the detailed answer: residing in non-Islamic lands in order to seek knowledge or spread the Islamic call, or to strengthen the Muslims, or to earn and work, or due to an excuse such as treatment for an illness, or because of captivity, or being prevented from residing in an Islamic country, is permissible in the Revealed Law. In this there is an Islamic benefit for the Muslims, which is that it is preferred for such a person to stay and remain rather than leave [the Muslims living there]. In other than these situations, residence is not allowed.[17]

    ‘As for citizenship, the foundation is that it is impermissible, because it is allegiance to a flag or a set of philosophical commitments that have not originated in Islam, and because it leads to strengthening the enemy, as is what happens with the emigration of professional people.[18] This is also the case because citizenship results in one being bound to certain requirements that may contradict the principles of Islam and its rulings, such as taking part in fighting Muslims or non-Muslims, and adhering to certain legal responsibilities that Islam has not affirmed. It is also because residing amongst non-Muslims leads to loving their customs or being influenced by their customs and approving them, especially in the minds of children. This is why the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon, said: ‘I am free of every Muslim who resides amongst the idol-worshippers.’ They said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, why?’ He said: ‘You should not be able to see each other’s fireplaces.’’[19]

    Imam al-Būṭī adds, in his book Fiqh as-Sīrah:

    ‘Second, as we have mentioned above, it is not permissible for a Muslim to reside in Dar al-Kufr or Dar al-Ḥarb if it is not possible for him to manifest his religion, and even if it is possible for him to manifest his religion it is still disliked (makrūh).’[1]



    What about ‘Fiqh of Minorities’?

    Sheikh Ramaḍān Al-Būtī has already dealt with this issue. Please see the following articles:

    Fiqh of Minorities (Part 1)
    Fiqh of Minorities (Part 2)


    Related Articles


    For the Ḥanbalī discussion on these matters, please click here.
    For the Mālikī discussion on these matters, please click here.





    [1] Translator’s note (tn): (468-543 AH/1076-1148 AD). Referred to loosely as the Qāḍī of the Mālikīs, he was a famous student of Imam Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī, may Allah have mercy on him. He was born in today’s Spain and is considered one of their greatest scholars. His commentary on the Qurʾān as well as different hadith collections are held to be amongst the many pearls and jewels of Islam. He is buried in Fes, Morocco.

    [2] (tn): Al-Bukhārī and Muslim. The wording in Muslim is: ‘On the authority of Ibn ʿAbbās, who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said on the Day of the Fatḥ [conquest] of Makka: “There is no more Hijra, but rather jihād and intention, and if you are summoned to fight go out and fight.”’’ In Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim bi Sharḥ An-Nawawī, the Imam states: ‘The ʿulamāʾ have stated that Hijra from Dar Al-Ḥarb to Dar Al-Islam remains in place until the Day of Resurrection. As for the interpretation of the ḥadīth [quoted above], there are two opinions regarding it. The first is that there is no Hijra after the Fatḥ [of Makka] from Makka because it has become Dar Al-Islam, and Hijra can only be made from Dar Al-Ḥarb. This comprises the miracle of The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, that it would remain Dar Al-Islam and emigrating from it is inconceivable. The second opinion, regarding the meaning of ‘there is no more Hijra’, is that the virtue of emigrating after the Fatḥ of Makka is not like the virtue of having emigrated before it, as Allah the Exalted has said: “Those of you who gave and fought before the Fatḥ are not the same…”’ [Translated from Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim bi Sharḥ An-Nawawī (Beirut: Dar Al-Kutub Al-ʿIlmiyyah, 2003) v.9 p.104-105, in The Book of Ḥajj] The full quotation from the āya is: “Those of you who gave and fought before the Fatḥ are not the same as those who fought and gave afterwards. They are higher in rank.” [Al-Ḥadīd 57:10] In Al-Majmūʿ Sharḥ Al-Muhadhdhib (v.19 p.264), which is the ultimate reference work for the Shāfiʿī school, Imam an-Nawawī states the same thing, i.e. he quotes Imam Ibn Al-ʿArabī again and states that Hijra from Dar al-Ḥarb to Dar Al-Islam was obligatory in the time of the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, and that this obligation remains in place after the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, for whoever fears for themselves. What came to an end after the Fatḥ of Makka was emigrating to wherever the Prophet was, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him.

    [3] (tn): I.e. the first three generations of Islam, based on the ḥadīth in Al-Bukhārī and Muslim: “The best generation is my generation, then those who come next, then those who come next.” The wording in the former is "The best of my Ummah is my generation..."

    [4] (tn): i.e. a tribe bearing this name

    [5] (tn): Based on Al-Hajj Abdassamad Clarke’s translation entitled The Complete Forty Hadith (London: Taha Publishers, 1998) p.10-11. Please see pages 9 and 10, i.e. the commentary on the first ḥadīth, of any Arabic edition.

    [6] (tn): For a list of his written works, please click here or visit his other website: www.bouti.net.

    [7] See Tuḥfa Al-Muḥtāj 9/269, Al-Mughnī by Ibn Qudāma 9/247 and 248, the Ḥāshiya of Ibn ʿĀbidīn 3/260, and Mughnī Al-Muḥtāj 4/339. (tn): The first book, Tuḥfa Al-Muḥtāj, is Imam Ibn Ḥajar Al-Haytamī’s, another muʿtamad source in the Shāfiʿī school, commentary on Imam An-Nawawī’s Minhāj At-Ṭālibīn, a muʿtamad curriculum text in that school. The second book, Al-Mughnī, is written by Imam Muwaffaq u-Dīn Ibn Qudāma, the muʿtamad source for the Ḥanbalī school. The third book is written by Ibn ʿAbidīn, the muʿtamad source for the Ḥanafī school.

    [8] (tn): ‘The minimum non-Muslim poll tax is one dinar (n: 4.235 grams of gold) per person (A: per year). The maximum is whatever both sides agree upon. It is collected with leniency and politeness, as are all debts, and is not levied on women, children or the insane.’ (Reliance of The Traveller (Beltsville: Amana Publications,1994), section o11.4, p.608.) As of 23/03/2011, 18:53 GMT, one gram of gold is worth £28.47, so the tax would be £120.57, or £10.05 per month. This is the only tax that non-believers have to pay.

    [9] Tuḥfa Al-Muḥtāj 9/269

    [10] (tn):This section is translated from the Sheikh’s book Al-Jihād fī Al-Islām (Damascus: Dar Al-Fikr, 1992) p.80. Dar Al-Kufr, therefore, is the opposite of Dar Al-Islam.

    [11] (tn): Ibid, p.81. It is worth noting that on the same page and the one that follows, Sheikh al-Būṭī refutes those Islamists who claim that implementation of the Revealed Law in its entirety is a condition for a land being Dar Al-Islam, which goes against what the ʿulamāʾ of Islam have agreed upon. These people claim that if the Revealed Law is not being implemented in its entirety it therefore becomes Dar al-Ḥarb, which would mean that Muslims living in most of, if not all, the Muslim-majority countries would have to leave, but where to? Oddly enough, many of them choose to emigrate to Europe or America. As the Sheikh rightly says, these people are only following their inclinations and desires and they have veiled their intellects from understanding the religion with thick veils of straying, emotional disturbance.

    [12] (tn): Fiqh As-Sīrah (The Jurisprudence of the Prophetic Biography) as translated by Nancy Roberts and revised by Anas Ar-Rifāʿī (Damascus: Dar Al-Fikr, 2008), p.230. Please see p.130 of the Arabic edition (Damascus: Dar Al-Fikr, 2003)

    [13] (tn): One can also have a look at Reliance of The Traveller, section w43.5, p.946-947 (Beltsville: Amana Publications, 1994)

    [14] (tn): Born in Syria in 1932, author of over fifty books, including an eleven-volume comparative fiqh book, quoted below, and a sixteen-volume tafsīr of the Qurʾān. For further information, please visit his website.

    [15] (tn): Translated from Al-Fiqh Al-Islāmī wa Adilatuhu (Damascus: Dar Al-




    source : naseemalsham.com/en/Pages.php?page=readDynamicCom&id=54321&comid=96&na me=Research%20and%20Articles&sub=The%20abodes%20of %20the%20earth%20what%20is%20the%20middle%20way?
    Dernière modification par talib abdALLAH ; 22/01/2018 à 22h11.

  8. #8
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    - L'Europe n'est pas Dar al-Harb :

    source : naseemalsham.com/en/Pages.php?page=readFatwa&pg_id=54270&back=9383

    Fatwa Number 54270
    06/01/2016 Europe is not Dār al-Ḥarb
    I’ve been here in Germany for some time in order to study computer sciences. In reality, life here is not that easy because it’s a different and society and culture, and a lot of Muslims here believe that what they’re doing is correct – such as stealing from the native people of this country because they’re not Muslims, and other similar things – and I believe this is a big mistake and I need your opinion. Another thing, for which I need your advice, is regarding food, for I always try to look at the ingredients of food to make sure they don’t contain anything unlawful (ḥarām) but I can’t always be certain. Sometimes, I discover later on that there was some unlawful ingredient and I don’t know what to do.
    Answered by: Sheikh Muhammad Saeed Ramadan Al-Bouti
    First of all, the texts that show that it is unlawful to transgress against the property of others are general (ʿāmmah) and include both Muslims and others, the exception being when there is a war (arb) between Muslims and disbelievers, and thats because war has exceptional rulings that are exclusive to it. Therefore, whoever says that its permissible, for himself or others, to steal the property of Europeans in the current circumstances of peace is a dajjāl[1] and liar against the religion of Allah, Mighty and Majestic. Through his lying and falsehood he seeks to soil the reputation of Islam with that which it is innocent of and which will make outsiders hate it.

    As for meat in Germany, you should be able to get some from Turkish Muslims, as there are many of them there and they have their own slaughterhouses, shops and restaurants.

    [Translated from the Imam’s book Mashūrāt Ijtimāʿiyyah (Damascus: Dār al-Fikr, 1424/2003), p.194-195]


    [1] (tn): this is the same word used to describe the False Messiah (or Antichrist) but linguistically means swindler, cheat, imposter, quack or charlatan. The point here is that those who lie about religious matters are similar to the False Messiah.

  9. #9
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    - Réponse à "acheter une maison en utilisant un prêt à intérêt" :

    source : naseemalsham.com/en/Pages.php?page=readFatwa&pg_id=54273&back=9383

    Fatwa Number 54273
    06/01/2016 purchase a house using an interest-based loan
    The European Council for Fatwa and Research has declared it permissible to purchase a house using an interest-based loan in non-Islamic countries based on the juristic principle that necessities permit forbidden matters and based on the statement of the Ḥanafīs that it is permissible to deal in interest in Dar al-Ḥarb (the Abode of War), and according to the Ḥanafīs Dar al-Ḥarb is non-Islamic countries, as is mentioned in the fatwa. It is worth mentioning that many Muslims act upon this fatwa, especially in America and in European countries. Thus, to what extent is this fatwa, which has been agreed upon by some scholars who are well-known in the Muslim world, valid and who bears the sin: the one who acts upon the fatwa or the scholars from this Ummah who issued it?
    Answered by: Sheikh Muhammad Saeed Ramadan Al-Bouti
    This fatwa that has circulated and been attributed to the anafī madhab is a lie and an act of oppression against them, for the anafīs do not say that every land of disbelief (kufr) is Dar al-arb. If that were the case then it would be obligatory upon the Muslims to fight all of them, and may a Muslim be far from saying such a thing. Dar al-arb refers to a country that the Imam of the Muslims has declared war against, and thus whatever of their wealth that reaches us during that time is war booty for us and whatever reaches them of our wealth is war booty for them. Therefore, dealing in interest is impermissible for a Muslim in every time and in every place. When you find yourself in Dar al-arb you fight the combatants who fight you. Every event has a discussion and every problem has a solution.

  10. #10
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    - Voyager dans un pays non-musulman pour étudier :

    Source : naseemalsham.com/en/Pages.php?page=readFatwa&pg_id=6748&back=9387

    Fatwa Number 6748
    27/10/2010 Travelling to non-Muslim States for Study
    I would like to ask you concerning the judgment of travelling to a foreign land in the West perusing an under-graduate education in a specialist field, of computer science, laser technology or other technologically advanced fields. Such specialist fields are unavailable in the Arab lands and the person intends to return to the Islamic lands .
    Answered by: Sheikh Muhammad Saeed Ramadan Al-Bouti
    Travelling to another country falls under the general category of ‘permissible’ acts, which is the original judgment for all human actions. Allah states : He it is Who hath made the earth subservient unto you, so Walk in the paths thereof and eat of His providence. And unto Him will be the resurrection (of the dead). (67 :15). This permissibility however is conditional that during the journey and residence in the West no contravention of the sacred law is intended in the circumstance that this is the intention the general permissibility of residence in the West will transform to prohibition. The Maxim of Jurisprudence states : The means take the same judgment as the ends.

    So a permissible means that leads one to a prohibited act in fact itself becomes prohibited, and likewise if the means is a channel to an obligatory act the means itself becomes obligatory and an action that is permissible in itself also transforms the means to a permissible act.

    Shaykh & Prof. Mohammed Saeed Ramadan al-Buti
    Dernière modification par talib abdALLAH ; 22/01/2018 à 22h15.

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