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Discussion: al-Imam Zayd ibn `Ali ibn al-Hussein ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib & les zaydites

  1. #21
    Modérateur Sermenté Avatar de talib abdALLAH
    Date d'inscription
    juin 2014
    10 942

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    Une biographie à traduire en français inch'Allah :

    Scholar Of Renown: Al-Hadi Yahya Ibn Al-Hussain


    Edited by Adil Salahi, Arab News Staff

    Publication Date:

    Mon, 2001-10-08 03:00

    Yahya ibn Al-Hussain ibn Al-Qassim was the grandson of Imam Al-Qassim Al-Rassi whom we introduced recently in this series. This means that Yahya is a direct descendent in the Hassani branch of the Prophet’s line of descent through his daughter Fatimah and her husband Ali ibn Abu Talib, the fourth Caliph and the Prophet’s cousin.

    Yahya was born in Madinah in 245 A. H., which corresponds roughly to A.D. 860. He devoted himself at a very early age to Islamic scholarship, particularly Fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence. He spared no effort in acquiring such knowledge from all available sources. Needless to say, his main area of study was the knowledge in which scholars of the Prophet’s descent specialized. He gathered all that and taught it in his circles both in Madinah and Yemen.

    He was the author of several books in both Fiqh and Hadith, one of which is known as Al-Ahkam, or Religious Rulings. In this book he follows the method established by Imam Malik in his most famous book, Al-Muwatta’. Thus, he mentions Hadiths and reports of statements by the Prophet and his companions, outlining the grade of authenticity of each such Hadith, and pointing out what he thinks about the areas of applicability of each such Hadith and report. In his study of any question, he is keen to relate it to the evidence on which the ruling is based. It is to be noted that in most cases, his reporting of Hadiths is in agreement with the chain of transmission outlined by Imam Zaid ibn Ali as reported in his book Al-Majmoo’. Thus we have a supporting evidence for the authenticity of the latter book by Imam Zaid.

    Imam Al-Hadi may issue rulings that agree or disagree with those of Imam Zaid, but he remains a scholar of the Zaidi school of Islamic law. Indeed he is one of its main figures, particularly because his sons and their contemporary scholars made a great effort in outlining the evidence for each ruling he made, and explained how a ruling is arrived at, and what may be said about it. It is such effort, carried by one generation of scholars after another that consolidates a school of thought and enriches it.

    Al-Hadi was recognized as an authority on Islamic scholarship throughout the Muslim world, and by followers of all schools of thought. Questions were put to him by scholars and ordinary people from everywhere in the Muslim world. He replied to all of these with valuable information, defending the method of the Qur’an and the Sunnah, outlining the true line to follow. In one of his letters he proves that whatever is authentic of the Prophet’s Sunnah includes God’s own orders and directives and must be followed by Muslims. He says: “The Prophet could not have invented anything without God’s knowledge. He is quoted in the Qur’an as saying, “I only follow what has been revealed to me.” (46: 9) God also says: “You were not aware either of the Book or of faith, but it is We who have made it a light to guide those whom We will.” (42: 52)

    This certainly proves that whatever the Prophet said or taught in matters of religion was given to him by God Himself.

    When he says this, Al-Hadi does not deny that the Prophet used his own discretion in matters that needed a decision. But should he make a mistake, God would inform him of the right course to follow. When he makes a right decision, then that is a manifestation of God’s guidance provided to him. In this, Al-Hadi answers those who claim that since the Prophet used his discretion, we also may use ours, even though it may be contrary to the Prophet’s own guidance. That is undoubtedly wrong, whether those who make such a claim were contemporaries of Al-Hadi or our own contemporaries.

    In 280, when Al-Hadi was 35, he traveled to Yemen, where he found a good reception for his scholarship. He gained much popularity and people wanted him to stay, but several reasons necessitated that he should return to Madinah, which he did. But he left behind many people who thought that he could unite the people of Yemen and put an end to many practices that deviate from Islamic teachings, but had crept into Yemeni life. They were particularly worried about the influence gained by the deviant group, Al-Qaramitah, who were guilty of spreading much evil. Therefore, a delegation of Yemeni notables traveled to meet him and invite him to go back to Yemen to assume its leadership. The delegation was preceded by numerous letters to the same effect sent by notables and ordinary Yemenis. He felt that he had to respond, and he returned to Yemen early in 284 A.H.

    When he offered himself as an Imam in both the political and scholarly sense, seeking people’s pledge of allegiance, he gave them what amounts today to a manifesto outlining his policy. He said to the people of Yemen: “I commit myself to four conditions defining my obligations toward you: 1) that I will rule in accordance with God’s book and the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him); 2) that I give you preference over myself in whatever God has placed as belonging to you and me, which means that I will not give myself any preference over you; 3) that I will put you ahead of myself when it comes to any financial benefit; and 4) I will put myself ahead of you when we face our enemy in war. On your part, you shall be committed to two things: 1) that you will give me good and sincere counsel in what serves God’s cause, whether in public or private; and 2) that you will obey my orders in all situations provided that I am obedient to God. If I commit any disobedience, I have no right to be obeyed by you. If I deviate from God’s book and the Sunnah of His Prophet, I have no argument to hold against you. This will be my policy.”

    When he assumed power, he strove to achieve two objectives: to unite Yemen on the basis of true Islamic government, and to ensure that justice is spread throughout Yemen. To him, justice included social justice, which meant that zakah and other sources due to the public treasury were paid in and then distributed to those who are entitled to benefit under Islamic law. He stipulated that at least one-quarter of the zakah collected from a village should be spent in that village. This ensured that the local poor received what they needed. Indeed, he worked hard to organize the state treasury, or Bait Al-Mal, so that all resources were utilized to the benefit of the community. It is perhaps useful to mention here that he ruled that the state treasury must buy any slave whose owner is a non-Muslim if the slave converts to Islam. In this he relied on the fact that one area for the use of zakah is freeing slaves.

    His was in fact a model Islamic rule. Hence, the people supported him whole-heartedly, and joined his campaigns against the enemies of Islam. By the year 293, i.e. after nine years of his rule in Yemen, the problem of the Qaramitah had become very serious, particularly because they were by now close to Yemen and making raids on some of its border areas. This group had upheld some views advanced by the extreme Shia, and were bent on destroying Islamic rule. Therefore, Imam Al-Hadi fought them hard, over five years. By the end of 298, he was wounded badly in his war against them, and soon died, having been a courageous fighter for the cause of Islam. The task of fighting this deviant group was left to his son, Ahmad ibn Yahya, who continued to fight them throughout his reign stretching over 27 years.

    source :

    Shaykh Adil Salahi

    Shaykh Adil Salahi has a varied background in English Literature and Islamic Studies, with
    professional accolades that include institutions as diverse as the World Health Organisation and the
    Markfield Institute of Higher Education. Having studied under various scholars in Damascus, his
    experience resulted in certification from numerous teachers in the age-old tradition of Islamic
    juristic thought. His main career has been in broadcasting and print journalism, which has seen him
    spend time on Syrian radio and at the BBC Arabic Service.

    For over 30 years he was the editor of Islam in Perspective, a twice-weekly full-page column in
    Saudi’s daily newspaper, the Arab News. His writings include the acclaimed Muhammad: Man and
    Prophet, the much lauded Pioneers of Islamic Scholarship, and an English translation of the
    Quran. More recently Shaykh Salahi penned Muhammad: His Character and Conduct, and he
    continues to publish in the Arab broadsheets, always offering his unique perspective on Islamic
    history and Quranic study.
    Dernière modification par talib abdALLAH ; 4 semaines avant à 19h20.

  2. #22

    Date d'inscription
    septembre 2019

    Par défaut

    Citation Envoyé par talib abdALLAH Voir le message
    Wa `alaykum as-salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh

    C'est dans ce sens que je vous disais dans un message précédant que l'approche concernant les ahadith des savants chiites zaydites est un peu plus sérieuse comparée à celle des savants duodécimains rawafidh qui ajoutent qu'il s'agissait de taqiyyah dans ce cas contrairement aux zaydites qui n'évoquent pas celà comme les sunnites.

    Sur l'approche des savants zaydites, je n'ai pas dit qu'elle est parfaite, il y aussi certaines contradictions entre eux, des divergences.
    as-salâmu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullâhi wa barakâtuh,

    Oui bien sûr, l'approche zaydite et, partant, les positions qui en résultent sont moins éloignées de la vérité que celles des duodécimains.

  3. #23
    Modérateur Sermenté Avatar de talib abdALLAH
    Date d'inscription
    juin 2014
    10 942

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    Lectures recommandées :

    La vie de l'Imam Zayd ibn `Ali ( `alayhi as-salam ) par l'Imam d'Al-Azhar, Muhammad Abu Zahra (rahimahullah) en arabe :

    En anglais :

    --> > Une thèse sur l'histoire du zaydisme, les divergences de ce madhab, les raisons de celles-cies, en anglais provenant de l'université américaine du Caire (Egypte) :

    La page de présentaion :

    --> > Zaydi Shiism and the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca (Transition progressive des sharifs hassani de La Mecque du Zaydisme vers le madhab Shafi`ite sous les différentes pressions politiques - Auteur : Richard T. Mortel
    Dernière modification par talib abdALLAH ; 4 semaines avant à 19h33.

  4. #24
    Modérateur Sermenté Avatar de talib abdALLAH
    Date d'inscription
    juin 2014
    10 942

    Par défaut

    اَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيطَنِ الرَّجِيمِ

    بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمَنِ الرَّحِيم

    اَلحَمدُلِلهِ رَبِ العَلَمِينَ

    Wa Sallalahu 'ala sayiddina Muhammad wa 'ala alihi wa sahbihi wa sallam taslima

    Asalam 'alaykoum wa rahmatoullahi wa barakatouh

    Selon les savants zaydites l'Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (افضل السلام) a été le premier à compiler le noble Coran.

    Le narrateur zaydi Al-Hafiz Muhammad bin Sulayman Al-Kufi (رح) a rapporté d'Al-Saddi qui rappote d'Ibn Al Abbas: "Le premier à embrasser l'islam était Ali avant le peuple et le premier à compiler le Coran"

    [Manaqib Amir Al-Mou'minin Ali bin Abi Talib]

    Selon Al-Hakim Al-Haskani Al-Hanafi rapportant d'Ali عليه السلام a dit que, lorsque des gens sont venus après la disparition du Prophète (ص), il a fait le serment qu'il ne se montrerait pas et qu'il ne perdrait rien de son temps jusqu'à ce qu'il compile le Coran. Il s'est assis dans sa maison jusqu'à ce que le Coran ait été compilé (selon Ahl Ja`far, la famille de Ja`far)

    [Shawahid Tanazil]

    Al-Ulama Al-Zahif Muhammad bin Ali a rapporté qu'en vérité, il (Imam `Ali) avait mémorisé le Coran du vivant du Prophète (Sallallahu `alayhi wa alihi wa sallim) et qu'il a été le premier à le compiler, ils ont rapporté qu'il avait tardé à prêter allégeance à Abou Bakr, les Ahl. Al-Hadith n'ont pas dit ce que les chiites disaient à savoir que la raison en est que l'imam Ali était occupé à compiler le Coran. [Ma'sir Al-Abrar]

    L'Imam Al Hadi (Yahya bin al-Husayn bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi) a rapporté de son grand-père, l'Imam Al Qasim, qu'il avait avec lui les manuscrits coraniques attribués à l'Imam Ali, à Salman Al Farisi, Miqdad et à Abu Dhar Ghafari, et avait déclaré qu'il n'y avait pas de mot ajouté ou manquant dans l'actuel Coran, la différence est négligeable comme le Alif et le Hamza. Il y avait aussi les Muwadhitayn, c'est-à-dire la sourate Al Nas et la sourate Al Falaq.

    Les Zaydites ne sont pas non plus d'accord avec les Imamiyyah sur le fait d'affirmer parce qu'Uthman bin Affan a brûlé les autres Mushaf, des parties du Coran ont été perdues.

    Les Zaydites ne sont pas d'accord avec les premiers Chiites Imamites Duodécimains sur le fait que le Coran a été corrompu. Ils croient ce que l'Imam Al Hadi a dit : Comment le Coran peut-il être corrompu quand Allah dit: «Nous avons révélé le Dhikr et nous en serons le gardien» ? (Sourate Al-Hijr: 9)

    Le Coran a été préservé sur les langues des premiers musulmans et il a été transmis à la génération suivante. C'est pourquoi le Coran est considéré comme une transmission de masse.

    Le contenu ci-dessus est en grande partie tiré d'un livre de questions et réponses de Sayyed Kazhim concernant le courant Zaydite.

    Dernière modification par talib abdALLAH ; 5 jours avant à 21h04.

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